More and more Americans today are coming to understand the terrible truth about our Federal Government — that it seeks to dominate us as citizens, to mold us into a society of dutiful Stepford Wives totally beholden to the wishes of elite politicians, bureaucrats and bankers. Those who study history, independent of the public school system, understand that this state aggrandizement process has been under way for the past 100 years in America in one form or another. And that it is taking place because too many of our citizens sanction such dictatorial usurpation and actually work diligently for its implementation.
This process has resulted in the lion’s share of our earnings being annually confiscated by these governmental elites and then redistributed to despicable projects of waste and war to further their dream of world collectivism. It has led to the shocking debasement of our currency and an endless escalation in the cost of staying alive. It has brought about the degeneration of our economy from a robust engine of industry and personal self-reliance to an effete conglomeration of bloated consumers subsisting on financial gimickery and debt addiction. As a result, America, once a proud land of muscular factories and productive people, has become a stuporous society of shopping malls and welfare crybabies. Once scintillating lives of freedom are now humdrum tenures of conformity to the insufferable Nanny State.
Why this process is taking place is one of the most disheartening questions of our time. What follows is an an attempt to show why and how it is unfolding. There are other reasons as to “why and how” than the one given here, for no country’s evolution into despotism is due to a singular, clear cut cause. Tyranny’s evolution is always a highly complex process with many convoluted forces all coalescing to bring about freedom’s demise. This essay, however, is a look into the most important of those forces.
A very popular and frightening science-fiction movie in 1956, called Invasion of the Body Snatchers, is an apt metaphor for what is taking place in our country. In the movie starring Dana Wynter and Kevin McCarthy, a network of aliens are slowly and secretly taking over the bodies of the citizens of a small town by use of mysterious cadaver-like “pods” that are left in their backyards and basements. Once transformed into an alien, each citizen then tries to recruit the rest of his family and friends. It’s absolutely chilling in its impact — one of the great science-fiction movies ever.
Today’s collectivists, working so assiduously to transform America, are like the aliens in that movie. They permeate our entire society and are after not our bodies, but the enslavement of our minds and souls. Ideological fallacies and moral inversions are the mysterious pods that these aliens leave in the cerebral backyards of our lives. They are aliens because they wish to destroy our system of natural liberty and limited government. And even though most of them believe what they are doing is right, they are far from innocent, for they have chosen to blank out on the horrendous ramifications of what they are doing.
Teaching a False Ideal
It begins in the school system. All modern authoritarian political movements of history require recruitment of an intellectual vanguard to proselytize the masses into accepting the authoritarian rule. This vanguard is recruited from the “ablest and brightest” of the nation involved. History shows how leading intellects of Europe used this strategy starting in the 1880’s and 1890’s to move Germany, Russia, and Italy into authoritarian political systems by the 1917-1930 period. What history also shows (if one wants to view it objectively) is that the same thing has been going on in America for many decades, only on a much more subtle level. The problem is that our media and our scholars quickly lose their objectivity when analyzing their own political system and the propagandistic methods used to promote it. Thus, history’s lesson is ignored for modern day consumption in order to further the recruitment of the American intelligentsia into promotion of the ideology of collectivism.
Instead of being forums for the transmission of the values of civilization to the young, our colleges and universities have now become the breeding ground for this statist recruitment process, in which the better students get swept up in the “false ideal” of collectivism. These better students then proceed out into the world to positions of intellectual, political and economic leadership, to proselytize the masses into this alleged ideal just as church missionaries used to go out into the world to spread the gospel. The difference being that the missionaries were spreading good, while today’s collectivists are pushing fallacies.
Such a vision very subtly conveys the notion that mankind is capable of achieving an egalitarian world where there will be no poverty, no disparity of wealth, no prejudice, no ignorance, no wars — in short a heaven on earth. The requisites for bringing about such a world are to erradicate the “nefarious workings” of the free-market through centralization of government power in Washington, and then eventually move to some form of world governing body. This is necessary because it is allegedly capitalism and man’s drive for profits which are responsible for the strife, wars and poverty from which the world suffers. Western civilization, having been built upon capitalism and profit, must be razed and replaced with a new civilization that will usher in this heaven on earth.
It is a powerful futuristic vision that is insidiously instilled into callow minds who lack the necessary sophistication to resist. Being young and prone to idealism, they perceive “political centralization and a one-world government” to be an ideal just as the students in Marx’s day mistook his “dictatorship of the proletariat” as some sort of ideal. Thousands of highly intelligent students spring forth from this brainwash every year to enter the world and spread their newly learned convictions that capitalism and Western civilization are the “roots of all evil.”
These “ablest and brightest” of our youth advance over the years into prominent careers as teachers, journalists, publishers, movie directors, ministers, politicians, bankers, and businessmen — all the time working for and promoting collectivism. Yet they don’t see themselves as working for anything dictatorial. They think the political centralization and Keynesianism taught to them by their mentors will heal the strife in the world, cure the poverty of the ghettos, smooth out the prejudices between races, etc. They think gold money is primitive and inflation progressive. When they push for more and more centralized government, more and more taxes, more and more regulations, more and more “liquidity” from the Federal Reserve, they are working for what they think will be a more benign civilization. They think they are working for an “ideal.”
As the great philosophers tell us, it is ideals that are the primary movers of men throughout history. Our tragedy is that we are educating one generation after another with “false ideals,” and the evidence that would expose the falsity of those ideals is not allowed a respectable place in our public schools due to those schools’ control by government bureaucracies and the statist viewpoint.
The New World Order
One of the most influential institutions resulting from this indoctrination process is what is called the Trilateral Commission. This is an international group of about 300 elite intellectuals, statesmen, bankers, and businessmen founded in 1973 by billionaire banker David Rockefeller as a spin off from the older Council on Foreign Relations (CFR).
The Council on Foreign Relations is like the Trilateral Commission, only much larger; it is composed of approximately 4,000 prominent leaders in business, government, and education, etc. It was formed in the 1920’s by a group of progressive intellectuals of Woodrow Wilson’s era led by the openly acknowledged Marxian socialist Edward Mandell House who was Wilson’s chief advisor. Its officially stated purpose was to coordinate America’s foreign policy with other nations to create a more peaceful and orderly world. But in actuality, its originators designed the organization to lead America into world collectivism.
The group today claims vague educational goals as its purpose, but numerous public statements from its leaders indicate that its policies are clearly directed toward transforming U.S. sovereignty and national independence into some form of all-powerful world government. It has, since the days of its inception, been patiently working for this goal, and its spin-off group, the Trilateral Commission, is doing likewise.
In his book, With No Apologies, the late U.S. Senator Barry Goldwater tells us that while David Rockefeller publicly launched the Trilateral Commission, the brains behind its formation was CFR member Zbigniew Brzezinski, whose 1970 book Between Two Ages set the tone for what is now referred to as a “New World Order,” in which the major nations of the world — the U.S., Europe, Japan, etc. — link together to plan and direct the fortunes of the rest of the world. In short, Brzezinski condemns national sovereignty as outdated and unworkable, says that we need to rewrite the American Constitution, and eliminate our system of federalism in favor of a more centralized government in Washington and eventually subordination to a world government. 
Here we have a profound demonstration of how ideas shape the unfolding of history. The Trilateral Commission and its parent, the Council on Foreign Relations, are the end results of many decades of ideological corruption in our colleges and universities beginning as far back as the late 19th century. The men of zeal who are inducted into the Trilateral Commission have been indoctrinated with false philosophical, political and economic theories that have their origin in the works of powerful collectivist thinkers such as Jean Jacques Rousseau, Auguste Comte, Karl Marx, and John Maynard Keynes. The overwhelming majority of academics throughout the West have been taught to revere such false theories (that declare laissez-faire capitalism and gold money to be a “chaotic and unworkable system” of economic organization), and they have in turn taught the elite Trilateral members this erroneous conception of history and economics. Is it any wonder then that the Trilateral members, in their zeal for order and armed with egregiously flawed ideological views, are driven to try and “help the people of the world” by centralizing them under one rule. This is the nature of intellectual men and women; most of them will always attempt to further the cause of what they feel to be right.
Of course, it doesn’t hurt the Trilateral members’ motivation in all this that they see themselves as part of the leadership elite that is to organize, advise and run this future One World Government. Power has consumed men throughout history, and it is no different today. Its lure takes well-meaning men and makes them zealous and arrogant; it makes them believe that the Gargantua of government can be controlled once unchained from the Constitution because it is in their “well-meaning hands.” When this lust for power is united with irrational ideas such as Keynesianism, central planning, social welfarism, one-world government, etc., then individual liberty is overwhelmed with disaster and despotism.
This then is one of the important links in the chain of causes moving America closer and closer to an egalitarian world dictatorship — the Trilateral Commission’s elite power brokers who spend their lives working for the “false ideal” of world collectivism which has been taught to them by our government dominated school system.
“In my view,” wrote Goldwater, “the Trilateral Commission represents a skillful, coordinated effort to seize control and consolidate the four centers of power — political, monetary, intellectual and ecclesiastical….What the Trilaterals truly intend is the creation of a worldwide economic power superior to the political governments of the nation-states involved….As managers and creators of the system, they will rule the future.” 
Former President Clinton’s Deputy Secretary of State, Strobe Talbot (a Trilateral member), succinctly expressed the organization’s long range goal recently in Time magazine: “In the next century,” he declared, “nations as we know it will be obsolete; all states will recognize a single, global authority….National sovereignty wasn’t such a great idea after all.” 
Protectors of the Empire
In ancient Rome after the Republic had expanded into Empire, there evolved a super elite of ruthlessly skilled soldiers whose sole job was to look after the Emperor and protect him at all cost; it was called the Praetorian Guard, and its responsibility was to perpetuate the rule of the reigning despot in power, to guard him against all enemies, to use whatever means necessary to extend his power.
Goldwater likened the CFR and Trilateral Commission to a new Praetorian Guard for our age. The job of these highly influential academics, politicians, bankers, and businessmen is to insure the perpetuation of America’s centralized state and pave the path for its merging into a World State by any means. “To accomplish this purpose,” he writes, “they [mobilize] the money power of the Wall Street bankers, the intellectual influence of the academic community…and the media controllers represented in the membership of the CFR and the Trilateral.” 
A very apropos analogy indeed. The combine of the CFR and the Trilateral Commission is a modern reincarnation of Caesar’s corps of elite soldiers pledged to protect despotism — not literally in terms of physical prowess, but much more sophisticatedly in terms of intellectual and financial prowess. The New World Order requires a new methodology of usurpation, and these ideological authoritarians have risen up to provide it in spades.
This New World Order that is taking shape among the intellectual and power elites of modern civilization has no place in its goals for national sovereignty, economic freedom, objective law, and decentralized government. Such values as these (the cornerstones of America) are in the minds our leaders today the causes of war, poverty, inequality and chaos. WORLD ORDER, rather than INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM is what these power elites seek; and they intend to do away with the founding principles of America to achieve it.
Such a vision is 180 degrees wrong, for war, poverty and chaos are not caused by economic freedom and objective law. They are caused by the very central planning and arbitrary law that world collectivism is structured upon. But rationality and truth are never the hallmarks of men of zeal in pursuit of power over their fellow men. Hubris of the most blatant kind moves the New World Order elites.
Their methodology has worked well for the past 100 years: Teach a subtle, socialistic serfdom to the more intelligent of our youth under the guise of an “ideal” society in which there will be no more poverty, hardship, and inequality in life if only we will construct a government that has the ability to print money at will and is far reaching enough to control all the political-economic endeavors of man. Then sell this mess of pottage by throwing reason, history and the economic facts of reality down the memory hole.
Their total state is not here yet, but it’s on its way. When it arrives, it will be as Tocqueville warned, “unlike anything that ever before existed in the world.” It will be a dreadful omnipresent power that “compresses, enervates, extinguishes, and stupefies a people” until they are “reduced to nothing better than a flock of timid and industrious animals, of which the government is the shepherd.”  Imagine a Swedish style social welfarism (with 75 percent tax rates) mixed in with a neo-fascistic global corporatism in the manner of the original movie Rollerball, that has to contend with desolate outback sectors of the world like we saw in Mad Max. This is what the 21st century holds for us.
In the Introduction to Brave New World, Aldous Huxley wrote, “A really efficient totalitarian state would be one in which the all powerful executive of political bosses and their army of managers control a population of slaves who do not have to be coerced, because they love their servitude. To make them love it is the task assigned, in present day totalitarian states, to ministries of propaganda, newspaper editors and schoolteachers.” 
The “army of managers” Huxley was warning about is already upon us. They are the statist intellectuals in our colleges and universities. They have a powerful control over the minds of our ablest and brightest youth, and they’re turning them into the most dutiful of apparatchiks for a new world collectivism.
Sanity and Rationality Give Way
This then is the primary reason for the insidious usurpation of our rights and freedom over the past century. Philosophical fallacies and socialist falsifications of economics and history have gained sway in the academy to poison our citizens’ minds against the American concept of freedom. Such fallacies have created a grossly distorted image for the man in the street about the way the world works. Freedom itself is now seen as inimical to human dignity. Creative entrepreneurship is portrayed as exploitation of the poor instead of their only hope. Gold is termed a “barbarous relic” instead of history’s proven store of value. Wealth is thought of as a part of nature and static instead of created by free men and infinite. And most deceptive of all, arbitrary government, the most brutal violator of individual rights in history, is now held to be man’s “beneficent saviour.”
All the values that sustain civilized life (freedom, strength of will, independence, honor) are endlessly denigrated in our schools and media today. We are being conditioned to accept sloth as normalcy, servility as dignity, weakness of will as compassion, and government conveyed privilege as justice. The world of sanity and rationality gives way to regimental nightmares of Orwellian “newspeak” and “political correctness” in order for legions of middle-class sluggards to feel good about themselves while they live out their spiritually squalid lives queuing up to the entitlement troughs of the mega-state. The academy, once the bastion of objective value and truth where the individual was primary, fragments into myriad cults of subjective idiocy to worship its idols of Egalitarianism and Central Planning.
Pretty bubbleheads preen daily on our financial networks, playing the shill to Wall Street and Washington in order to lure unsuspecting Americans into buying insanely overvalued stocks. The great market exchanges, once prudent arenas of investment where the engine of capitalism traded value for value, have become sham casinos staggering under decades of massive Fed created debt and lurching into oblivion on the greater fool theory. Yet our high level bureaucrats, led by Alan Greenspan, exhort all Americans to consume still more of their seed corn and seek still more fools.
Mole-like men now posture as intellectuals with a perspective that extends no further than the previous decade. Oliver Wendell Holmes’ “one story intellects” (the fact mongers, memorizers, and calculators) wheel and deal from the corridors of power and slick TV talk shows spewing out grandiose prescriptions for “government investment” of our earnings.
Communism fell to the only fate its barbaric nature could have produced — brutal starvation and debilitating chaos. Yet these bureaucratic mole-men claim they will get the socialist utopia right this time, that they have learned how to centrally plan the totality of man’s economic needs, that they know how to control the mastodonic beast of federal power. We now can have freedom without risk, plenty without work, and hope without heartache.
Such are the illusions of modernity’s short range mentalities. Such is the fate of those who believe knowledge is numbers and truth a remnant of primitive times, that technology is a substitute for values and security more precious than liberty.
These are the irrational pretensions of our age. These monstrous absurdities, being promoted today as humane social policies, are the result of deeply flawed theoretical doctrines that have slowly permeated our academic community over the past 100 years — doctrines such as absolutism of the general will, the labor theory of value, the organic concept of society, moral relativism, majoritarianism, and inflationary monetary policy.
Such doctrines have been handed down to us from the likes of Jean Jacques Rousseau, G.W.F. Hegel, Auguste Comte, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, John Dewey and J.M. Keynes. They have produced what historian, Clarence Carson, calls a “collectivist curvature of the mind.”
Zeitgeist or Conspiracy?
It is this collectivist curvature of the mind that is setting the stage for the coming dictatorship. Once the Mind Snatchers have worked their ideological venom into the brains of our youthful intelligentsia during their college years, they have recruited in most instances a lifelong collectivist apparatchik for their cause. If that apparatchik is brilliant and ruthless, he will attempt to rise high in government and banking circles. He will seek to join elite organizations such as the CFR and the Trilaterals. He will strive relentlessly to move the country toward the collectivist ideal of a one-world government.
Many people on the political right today subscribe to the idea that groups such as the CFR and the Trilaterals are being orchestrated by a secret conspiracy to move our country into world tyranny. This conspiracy stems from a clandestine group of Fabian socialists that was formed at the end of the 19th century by the British statesman Cecil J. Rhodes. Their efforts led to the development of a select “inner circle” of elite mega-bankers that perpetuates itself every generation and remains unknown but powerfully influential behind the scenes working to move all nations into a one-world government. This line of thinking has evolved into what is called the “conspiracy theory of history.”
As this article plainly shows, I am certainly in agreement about the collectivist movement plaguing our world. But in my opinion, the “conspiratorial elements” of this movement are TACIT rather than SECRET. The collectivist movement is a multi-faceted phenomenon of many levels and subtlties, with its dream of world domination openly advocated in all leftist circles. It is led by an elite array of politicians, bureaucrats, mega-banks, corporations, foundations, and organizations, etc. all pushing for bigger and bigger government because it furthers their power, status and wealth. There are certainly many minor (or ad hoc) conspiracies that take place within this push for bigger government. After all, the politically powerful and the financially powerful have been conspiring with each other for 5,000 years to advance themselves and their agendas through Machiavellian endeavors. But to conceive of these elites monolithically as part of an integrated “master conspiracy,” in my view, goes one bridge too far.
Just because such elite groups are all moving in the same direction (toward a one-world government), it doesn’t follow that they must be secretly organized and controlled from behind the scenes. Nor must they be evil in intent, knowing full well what they are doing is wrong, and still desirous of such evil.
A more rational explanation is what I have endeavored to outline in this essay. Today’s power elites are all moving in the same direction because of the ideological worldview that was laid down in their minds in college. It powerfully shapes their lives; in fact it does this to everyone’s lives. When such a worldview is poisoned by collectivist ideals and implanted in young people, it makes them move in lockstep toward ever increasing collectivism as they rise in their adult careers. Also as I have already pointed out, the elites don’t conceive of their agenda as evil. They see it as salvation from the “dangerous flaws of capitalism.”
In other words, society is moved in much the same manner as the stock market. Just as there is a sentiment (i.e., an investor psychology) that moves prices up and down in the stock and commodity markets, there is also a sentiment or zeitgeist of the era that invades a society and moves its intellectuals one way or another — toward tyranny and corruption, or toward freedom and integrity. The 20th century zeitgeist was world collectivism, and we are still mired deep in its thralls.
What has resulted from this zeitgeist is that there are two major factions of collectivist elites operating in the world today — “political-financial” and “ideological.” They both wish to bring about the end of national sovereignty and move all nations toward a one-world government to be run by endless streams of fiat money and political regimentation.
The political-financial elites dominate the economy by means of a fascist banking cartel and the conveyance of privileges via Congress to large voting factions. The ideological elites dominate our university system by means of persuasive but false theories and doctrines to mold the minds of our youth in their college years. Both of these elites have been taught that the Founders’ constitutional system of free enterprise is unworkable, anachronistic, evil, exploitative, racist, and war-mongering. Thus in order to have a sane and “stable” world, we must phase into a one-world government.
The political-financial elites do not overtly publicize their goal. They prefer to quietly smuggle our nation into a one-world government because they know there is too strong a tradition of freedom in America for her people to accept such a fate all at once. Thus it is implemented insidiously. The ideological elites, however, parade prominently throughout our university system, openly proclaiming their goal of a one-world government as a political “ideal” because they know that this approach is necessary to capture the “best and the brightest” of the students they encounter every year.
So “collectivist elites” do indeed exist, and they are working to destroy a free, sovereign America. But the main power moving them and us toward tyranny is the power of IDEOLOGY. The real conspiracy is ideological, not financial. Our politicians and mega-bankers are driven by the goal of a one-world government because they think of it as the ideal for a complex modern world. This agenda of world collectivism didn’t just spring full blown in their heads, nor was it in their heads from birth. It was hatched in the school system. Our political-financial elites are first prepared by collectivist ideology in their college years. Without this ideological preparation, there would be no pervasive political movement toward a New World Order.
All well and good say the secret conspiracy advocates. Intellectuals do teach false ideals in the schools, which poison the minds of the best and brightest coming through the system. But our intellectuals long ago were bought off by the powerful corporate and banking elites of the latter 19th and early 20th centuries. Men such as John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Mellon, and Henry Ford established prestigious foundations with billions of dollars to go toward grants to scholars who would teach the collectivist ethos. In this manner, the financial power elites control and manipulate the intellectual elites into becoming their lackeys. They mold our scholars into salesmen for world collectivism. Thus the real source of the evil taking over the world is indeed a cabal of mega-bankers and corporate moguls whose reach stretches even into the ideological arena.
This type of reasoning doesn’t really fly. Anyone who has a working knowledge of scholars knows that the big creative minds among them are moved by an all consuming desire for truth and the ideal. They would no more allow men like John D. Rockefeller to dictate that truth than they would allow witch doctors to perform medical surgery on them. The second line scholars (the reiteraters rather than the creators) take their cue from the top scholars and mold their thinking accordingly. Thus it is this leadership of the top scholars that indoctrinates the second line scholars, who then indoctrinate the “best and the brightest” students with the one-world ideal of collectivism.
From where do the top scholars get their motivation? From the super-minds of history, the great philosophers, scientists, and economists. And super-minds like Isaac Newton, Adam Smith, Karl Marx, Ludwig von Mises, and Albert Einstein do not bow and scrape to mega-bankers and corporate moguls. They revere the ideal of truth and seek it at all costs. They may grossly err in their discovery of it and plunge the world into terribly destructive fallacies (witness Marx), but their motivation is cerebral rather than monetary.
Thus financial elites do not mold the intellectuals; the intellectuals mold them. It goes back to the most powerful force moving us all — the philosophical ideals that are laid down in our minds in our youth to form our worldview. Tyranny is never forged with money and political power alone; it has to first be created by stealing the minds and souls of the citizens when they are young. The intellectuals pave the way for the Hitlers and the Lenins.
The battle for the world is won or lost in our schools. The intrigues of politics and the conspiracies of elite bankers and corporate moguls have their place in the torrent of history. But the grand directive of all their action is ideology and the guiding ideals that it instills into men’s lives.
As the novelist Huxley profoundly put it, “It is in the light of our beliefs about the ultimate nature of reality that we formulate our conceptions of right and wrong; and it is in the light of our conceptions of right and wrong that we frame our conduct, not only in the relations of private life, but also in the sphere of politics and economics. So far from being irrelevant, our metaphysical beliefs are the finally determining factor in all our actions.” 
End of America as a Sovereign Nation
To sum all this up, our drift into collectivist tyranny starts with the big thinkers of civilization such as Rousseau, Hegel, Comte, Marx, Keynes, etc. They create the tyrannical ethos, which then works its way through the academic arena to capture all levels of scholars, where it proceeds to poison each generation’s “best and brightest” who then go out and become the next generation’s power elites.
The goal of these intellectuals and the power elites they spawn is the cessation of America as a sovereign nation. The end of our free enterprise system and the Founders’ vision of liberty must naturally follow in order to complete the tyrannical vision. My forthcoming book, The Golden Mean: The Case for Libertarian Politics and Conservative Values, is all about this takeover of the American people through a twisting of their minds.
We have been invaded by alien Mind Snatchers who are turning America into a nation of sheep akin to the zombies we saw in Invasion of the Body Snatchers. Like the pod people in that famous movie, the Mind Snatchers and their false theories have, over the past 100 years, saturated many of our important institutions — from government, to the schools, to the churches, to Hollywood, to the media. The Mind Snatchers preach about the need for “stability and security,” but it is the same goal of all despotic movements throughout history — the enslavement of man justified by irrational ideology and sophistry.
A gargantuan crash of prosperity and freedom now looms up ahead as a result of this ideological invasion and corruption. Out of the crash will come a new society. Our only hope for that new society lies in whether we, who have kept the faith of our fathers, can inform enough of our fellow citizens as to what the requisites of freedom truly are. If we can, then a rebirth of America will take place. If not, then some variant of Orwell’s nightmare will descend upon the world to enslave and stultify life for the upcoming centuries.
- Barry M. Goldwater, With No Apologies, (New York: Berkely Books, 1980), p. 294.
- Ibid., pp. 297-299.
- Strobe Talbot, “The Birth of the Global Nation,” Time, July 20, 1992, p. 70.
- Goldwater, op. cit., p. 300.
- Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994),Vol. II, pp. 318-319.
- Aldous Huxley, Brave New World, (New York: Bantam Books, 1967), p. xiv.
- Aldous Huxley, Ends And Means: An Inquiry into the Nature of Ideals (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1937), p. 11.